History of Pathology


History of pathology

Pathology is known in Iran as a science that has provided evidence for many diseases that have been considered by physicians since ancient time. Egyptian papyrus of Edwin Smith, the oldest known medical inscription.(1700 BC) Contains texts on the mechanism of diseases and their causes , from breast tumors to wounds healing and infections. Despite this long attention, understandable process for us about the science of pathology formed in the last quarter of second millennium, when anatomical explorations become possible and showed the view of all organs. Later when anatomy facilitated macroscopic recognition of the patient organs and tissues it allowed pathology to become a new tool for diagnosing and interpreting disease. Subsequently during the last quarter of 19th century ,the histology of dead tissues (autopsy) was recognized by physicians such as Rudolf Virsh , who inspired the cellular theory of disease and That was the time that pathology became a clinical science and a framework for diagnosing and treating disease . since the beginning of the new course of medical education in Iran   pathology has been one of the main parts of scientific medical education. Pathology upgraded from being  just a theoretical word to a great tool in behavior mechanism education , treatment and control of disease.

Pathology in ancient Iran

Despite the great development and greater comprehension of medical science of Iran specially during the Islamic age, we have little information about the pathological path in that period.

There is good evidence about the complete description of disease as liver cirrhosis, tuberculosis, pleural effusion, etc. in Iranian famous inscriptions such as Avicenna’s canon and Razi’s Almasoudi. Although there is no information available about how these scientists acquired such science, Because the dissection of the dead human body (Autopsy) was forbidden at that period of time. It is believed that this degree of knowledge was obtained only through physical examination, surgery or post-mortem examination.


Pathology in contemporary Iran

The beginning of the history of pathology in Iran dates back to the 20th century. When professor Mostafa Habibi established clinical anatomy in Iran. Before 1933, pathology was not part of Iran’s standard education program. However histology and clinical anatomy were taught by professor Ali Falati at the university of Tehran. His work was later followed by Mostafa Habibi, who at that time was a professor of histology and embryology at the University of Tehran. Professor Habibi passed away in 1947 and his position at Tehran University remained vacant for 6 years.

Then two of Habibi’s best students, professor Armin and Rahmatian, continued his way as pathology teacher. Professor Rahmatian and his colleague Professor Shams established the first pathology laboratory in 1953 in a 1000-bed hospital. The laboratory was equipped with electron microscope and tissue and cell pathology departments. At the same time they established the position of oncology at the university of Tehran. Iranian scientist trained in this laboratory center were well known professors of pathology in the middle east (Turkey, Egypt, Pakistan) simultaneously with the establishment of hospital pathology laboratory, professor Armin established a pathology laboratory on campus. These two laboratories trained many students. These students later joined other universities across the country. the Other one who had a great impact on the position of pathology in Iran was professor Muslim Bahadori. Bhadori was a master in clinical medicine and molecular pathology. He made significant efforts to create a bridge between physicians and molecular pathology and pathophysiology in Iran. It also strengthened research in this area and established an international research class at Tehran University of Medical Sciences

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